4. What was the Arts and Crafts movement and how did it manifest itself in architecture? Who were its leading figures? What were the main ideas behind it? What were the social concerns that motivated its practitioners? 5. How was architecture mobilized for the colonial endeavors of various European powers? How did colonizers treat indigenous architecture? What kinds of buildings did they construct and for what purposes? How did they respond to varied conditions in the colonies, for example, those in the Americas vs. those in India?
6. How were the major European metropolises like Paris, Vienna, and Barcelona transformed in the 19th century? Why was modernization necessary? How was it carried out? What were its social repercussions? What kinds of buildings populated the new urban spaces of these cities? 7. What were the conditions that allowed the emergence of the skyscraper as a fundamentally new building type of the late 19th century? What were the aesthetic challenges of this new building type? What theoretical and practical positions were developed as its articulation?
8. What was Art Nouveau? Where did it emerge? What were its inspirations and goals? Please contrast and compare three regional variations of Art Nouveau architecture discussed in class.